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باغبانی(انجمن علمی دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی) - به وخواص آن

به وخواص آن

نویسنده :خضر پاکان
تاریخ:شنبه 8 بهمن 1390-11:49 ق.ظ

به

میوه بـِه [ ب ِه ْ ] یا بهی (نام علمی: Cydonia oblonga) دارای گوشت خشک و کرکی است که طعمی ترش و تقریباً گس دارد.  طرح عمومی آن مبتنی بر 5 کاسبرگ ، 5 گلبرگ ، 2 چرخه 5 تایی پرچم و حداقل 5 برچه است. گلها تقریبا همیشه نر ماده ، منظم یا نامنظم هستند. این راسته شامل تیره‌های متعدی است. که یکی از مهمترین تیره‌های آن ، تیره گل سرخ استبه دارای منحنی رشدونمو سیگموئید ساده می باشد. 
وقتی به پخته می‌شود بو و طعمی بسیار خوش دارد. برای
کمپوت مناسب است و بصورت مربا و مارمالاد نیز کاربردی عالی دارد.اگر به دنبال به هستید باید به بازار کشاورزان یا مغازه‌های مخصوص سبزی مراجعه کنید. به در داخل آمریکا بیشتر از کالیفرنیا می‌آید اما این میوه بصورت جهانی در فرانسه، یونان، آرژانتین، نیوزیلند و ایران نیز پرورش می‌یابد. درخت به درختی است از تیره گل سرخیان، جزو دسته سیبها که پشت برگهایش کرک دار است.آنرا در آستارا، هیوا، در رامیان و کتول، شغال، در لاهیجان و دلیجان و رودسر، توچ و در رامسر و شهسوار، سنگه مینامند. درخت به، در خاکهای خشک و خیلی آهکی خوب نمیروید و نیازمند به خاک ژرف است .به فرازگرا می باشد.

تصویر

تیره گل سرخ

گیاهانی علفی یا چوبی با برگهای منفرد و دارای گوشوارک هستند. گلها عموما منظم هستند. تیره گل سرخ تیره مهمی است که دارای 90 تا 100 جنس و بیش از 2000 تا 3000 گونه است. این تیره از یک سو به علت داشتن اختصاصات بسیار کهن مستقیما به تیره آلاله مربوط می‌شود. غالبا تیره‌های گل سرخ در نواحی معتدل نیمکره شمالی پراکنده هستند و در عین حال بعضی از طایفه‌های آن مانند طایفه کیلاژه تقریبا همگی در نواحی گرمسیری می‌رویند.

جنس به

چنس به با نام علمی Cydonia درختان تقریبا کوتاه ، حداکثر تا ارتفاع 5 متر ، با برگهای ساده و پوشیده از کرک هستند. کاسه گل 5 لبه ، جام شامل 5 گلبرگ ، تخمدان 5 خانه با 5 خامه است. میوه آن سیب مانند ، 5 خانه و هر خانه محتوی دانه‌های متعدد با درون‌بر غضروفی و دانه‌های پوشیده از لعاب و میان‌بر گوشتی است. از این جنس گونه‌ای به نام Cydonia oblogna در نواحی شمال ایران و در جنگلهای سواحل دریای خزر با نام محلی شغال‌به یا شال‌به می‌روید. به اهلی و خوراکی از واریته‌های مختلف این گونه است.






تصویر

خواص به

به دارای ویتامین A و B بوده و دارای آهک و تانن است و از این رو برای مبتلایان به بیماری سل غذای مطلوبی است. ملین بوده و طبل شکم را خالی می‌کند و در کوچک کردن شکم موثر است. آب میوه به برای معالجه اسهال خونی و خونریزی معده تجویز می‌شود. اگر پوست میوه به را 15 روز در الکل خیس کنند و با آب آن صورت را مالش دهند، چین و چروک را از بین می‌برد. اشتها را زیاد می‌کند و میوه آن بوی بد دهان را از بین می‌برد. مربای به برای جهت نرم کردن و درمان سرفه و تنگی نفس سودبخش می‌باشد.

ضماد برگ و میوه به جهت فرو بردن ورمهای گرم مخصوصا ورم چشم نافع است. از این ضماد می‌توان برای رفع سوزش محل نیش حشرات سمی استفاده نمود. ضماد برگ به به تنهایی جهت معالجه زخمهای چرکی مفید می‌باشد. کرک روی پوست میوه به بسیار قابض است و برای گلو و آواز خوب نیست. چنانچه آب میوه به را در روغن زیتون ریخته و آن را غلیظ نمایید جهت معالجه اسهال و زخم معده اثر معجزه آسا دارد.



تصویر

به‌دانه

به‌دانه بیشتر از انواع جنگلی به بدست می‌آید. لعاب دانه آن در نرم کردن سینه و درمان سرفه شهرت زیادی دارد. معده را نرم می‌کند. لعاب آن گلو را نرم می‌کند. حرارت معده و تب را تسکین می‌کند. سوزش دهان و زبان را درمان می‌کند و یبوست را برطرف می‌نماید. لعاب به دانه جهت آفتاب‌زدگی و سوختن با آتش و دفع ضرر تابش آفتاب نافع است. شما که به دریا می‌روید قبلا پوست خود را با لعاب به دانه نرم کنید تا از آفتاب زدگی شدید جلوگیری نمایید. جویدن به‌دانه کندی دندان را برطرف می‌کند. لعاب به دانه در عطرسازی هم استفاده می‌شود.


نوع مطلب : میوه های معتدله 

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