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باغبانی(انجمن علمی دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی) - ترین های جهان

ترین های جهان

نویسنده :خضر پاکان
تاریخ:چهارشنبه 27 آذر 1392-07:00 ب.ظ

بلند ترین درخت: بلندترین درخت در سال 1872میلادی در استرالیا کشف شد که از نوع «اکالیپتوس» بود و ارتفاع آن به 152متر می رسید. ولی فعلا درختی که از نوع «سکویاو» در کالیفرنیا بزرگ ترین درخت محسوب می شود که بالغ بر 12متر ارتفاع دارد و این نوع درخت گاهی تا 140متر درازا پیدا می کند.

سالخورده ترین درخت: سالخورده ترین درخت در دنیا صنوبری به ارتفاع 3275 متر در «نوادا» است. بنابر پژوهش هایی که در سال 1964میلادی انجام شده این درخت 4900 سال سن دارد.

قطور ترین درخت: قطور ترین درخت جهان «سکویای» کالیفرنیا معروف به «ژنرال شرمن» به ارتفاع 83 متر و قطر 8/83متر و وزن آن 2500تن است. عمر این درخت به 4000سال می رسد و قطور ترین شئی زنده برروی زمین است. از چوب آن می توان 40 خانه هر یک مرکب از 15 اتاق ساخت.


کند ترین رشد در درختان: گرچه رشد درختان اغلب بستگی به شرایط گوناگون رشد دارد، معهذا برخی از درختان مانند شمشاد و درخت سرخدار معمولا رشد کندی دارند. دکتر «چارلز پیترز» بین سال های 1981 و 1984میلادی در مکزیک درختی را زیر نظر گرفت. تحقیقات او نشان داد که میزان رشد این گیاه 0/76میلیمتر در سال است و اینکه یک نمونه 120ساله این درخت فقط 9/9 سانتیمتر ارتفاع داشت.

اولین گونه درخت: اولین گونه درختی که هنوز باقی مانده درخت «جینکو» یا «چهل سکه» یا «شجره المعبد» بومی منطقه ژزیانگ در چین است این گیاه که اولین بار در دوره ژوراسیک رشد کرده در سال 1690میلادی توسط «کمفر» هلندی کشف و در سال 1754میلادی به انگلستان برده شد. البته این گیاه از سال 1100میلادی در ژاپن میروئیده است.

سنگین ترین و سبک ترین چوب: سنگین ترین چوب متعلق به درختی است به نام درخت «آهن سیاه» که به درخت آهن آفریقایی جنوبی نیز شهرت دارد. وزن مخصوص چوب آن 49/1 می باشد و وزن هر متر مکعب آن 1490 کیلوگرم است. سبک ترین چوب «هیسپیدا» می باشد که در کوبا یافت می شود. وزن مخصوص آن معادل 0/044 و وزن هر متر مکعب آن 44 کیلوگرم است.

 

عمیق ترین و انبوه ترین ریشه ها: بیشترین عمقی که ریشه یک گیاه توانسته در زمین نفوذ کند 120متر است. ریشه یک درخت انجیر وحشی در نواحی غارهای «اکو» در شرق منطقه «ترانسوال» تا این عمق فرورفته است. «چاودار زمستانه» رکورد فشرده ترین ریشه ها را به خود اختصاص داده است. این گیاه می تواند 8/622 کیلومتر ریشه را در 0/051مترمکعب خاک تولید کند.

کوچک ترین گیاه گل دار و میوه دار: کوچک ترین گیاه گل دار موسوم به «علف اردک» در آب های قاره استرالیا به صورت شناور یافت می شود. طولش 0/6میلیمتر و پهنای آن 0/33میلیمتر است. میوه آن شبیه انجیر است و 0/0007گرم وزن دارد.

سریع ترین رشد: نوعی زنبق بومی جزایر «سیلی» در انگلستان سریع ترین رشد را در میان گیاهان دارد. این گیاه ظرف 14 روز 65/3 متر رشد کرده است. کندترین رشد: نوعی گیاه نادر بومی کشور بولیوی دارای کند ترین رشد است این گیاه اولین بار در سال 1870میلادی در ارتفاعات این کشور دیده شد. سنبله آن بین 80 تا 150 سال پس از کاشت ظاهر می شود.

بزرگ ترین کاکتوس: نوعی کاکتوس به نام «ساگوآرو» که در ایالت «آریزونا» در جنوب شرقی ایالت کالیفرنیا و در منطقه «سونوران می روید بزرگ ترین کاکتوس جهان محسوب می شود. ارتفاع آن 16متر است. یک نمونه بیش از حد رشد کرده این کاکتوس که در آوریل 1978 میلادی در آریزونا اندازه گیری شد، 24 متر ارتفاع داشت. این کاکتوس در ژوئیه 1986 میلادی در اثر یک طوفان باد از جا کنده شد و در آن زمان 150سال عمر کرده بود.
بزرگ ترین شکوفه ها: گل زنبق رنگارنگ که به  صورت انگلی زندگی می کند و بوی زننده ای نیز دارد. در بین گل ها دارای بزرگ ترین شکوفه می باشد. اندازه این شکوفه ها 91سانتیمتر و ضخامت آن ها 9/1سانتیمتر و وزنشان 7کیلوگرم است.

بزرگ ترین گیاه گلدار: نوعی گیاه موسوم به «ویستریا»، یا «غول پیکر چینی» که در ایالت کالیفرنیا نگهداری می شود بزرگ ترین گیاه گل دهنده، محسوب می شود این گیاه که در سال 1892میلادی کاشته شد و هم اینک دارای شاخه هایی به طول 152میلیمتر است. «ویستریا» در دوره 5هفته ای گل دادن خود 1500000شکوفه می دهد.

سنگین ترین قارچ خوراکی: در 15 اکتبر 1990 میلادی، شخصی به نام «جیووانی پابا» ساکن شهر «بروراستون» در جنگل «نیوفارست» در انگلستان قارچی خوراکی از تیره «لائتیپوروس سولفوروس» یافت که 4/45کیلوگرم وزن داشت. این بالاترین رکورد وزن قارچ های خوراکی محسوب می گردد.
کم کالری ترین و پرکالری ترین میوه: «خیار» از جمله کم کالری ترین میوه ها است و در هر 100گرم آن فقط 16 کالری موجود می باشد. «آوکادو» با 163کالری در هر 100گرم پرکالری ترین و مغذی ترین میوه ها است.

تندترین ادویه: تندترین ادویه از «هابانرول» که گیاهی از جنس کاپسیکوم بومی مکزیک و مناطق حوزه دریای کاراییب است تهیه می شود. یک گرم از این ادویه برای 200 کیلوگرم سس فلفل کافی است.




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